gene‑. Also gen‑. To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. 1. Suffixed zero‑grade form in Germanic *kunjam family, race, in: a. Old English cyn(n), race, family, kin: KIN; b. *kuningaz king (< "son of the royal kin"), in Old English cyning, king: KING. 2. Suffixed zero‑grade form *gn‑ti‑ in: a. Germanic *kundjaz family, race, in Old English cynd, gecynd(e), origin, birth, race, family, kind: KIND, (KINDRED); b. Germanic *kundiz natural, native, in Old English gecynde (ge‑, collective prefix; see kom), natural, native, fitting: KIND; c. Germanic variant *kinth‑ in Old High German kind, child: KINDERGARTEN, Kriss Kringle; d. Latin gins (stem gent‑), race, clan: GENS, (GENTILE), GENTLE, (GENTEEL); GENDARME. 3. Suffixed full‑grade form *gen‑es‑ in: a. Latin genus (stem gener‑), race, kind: GENDER, GENERAL, GENERATE, (GENERATION), GENERIC, GENEROUS, GENRE, GENUS; CONGENER, (CONGENIAL), DEGENERATE, (ENGENDER), MISCEGENATION; b. Greek genos and genea, race, family: GENEALOGY, GENOCIDE, GENOTYPE, HETEROGENEOUS; c. Greek suffix ‑genes, "‑born": ‑GEN, ‑GENY. 4. Suffixed full‑grade form *gen‑yo‑ in: a. Latin genius, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality: GENIUS, GENIAL; b. Latin ingenium (in‑, IN‑), inborn character: INGENIOUS, ENGINE. 5. Suffixed fixed full‑grade form *gen‑a‑ in Latin indigena (indu‑, variant of in‑, IN‑), born in (a place), indigenous: INDIGEN, (INDIGENOUS). 6. Suffixed fixed full‑grade form *gen‑wo‑ in Latin ingenuus (in‑, IN‑), born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn: INGENUOUS. 7. Suffixed full‑grade form *gen‑men‑ dissimilated in Latin germen, shoot, bud, embryo, germ: GERM, GERMAN (GERMANE), (GERMINAL), (GERMINATE). 8. Suffixed full‑grade form *gen‑ti‑ in Greek genesis, birth, beginning: GENESIS, ‑GENESIS. 9. Reduplicated form *gign in: a. Latin gignere (past participle genitus), to beget: GENITAL, GENITIVE, GENITOR, GENT, GINGERLY; CONGENITAL, PRIMOGENITURE, PROGENITOR, (PROGENY); b. Greek gignesthai, to be born: EPIGENE. 10. Suffixed zero‑grade form *‑gn‑o­in Latin benignus (bene, well; see deu‑2), good­natured, kindly, and malignus (male, ill; see mel‑5), evil‑natured, malevolent: BENIGN, MA­LIGN. 11. Extended form *gna- in Latin praegnas  (prae‑, before, PRE‑), pregnant: PREGNANT. 12. Suffixed zero‑grade form *gn-sko- becoming *gna‑sko‑ in Latin gnasci, nasci (past participle gnatus, natus to be born: NAIVE, NASCENT, NATAL, NATION, NATIVE, NATURE, NEE, NOEL; AGNATE, (ADNATE), COGNATE, CONNATE, ENATE, INNATE, NEONATE, PUNY, (PUISNE), RENAISSANCE. 13. Suffixed o-grade form *gon‑o‑ in Greek gonos (combining form ‑gonos), child, procreation, seed: GONAD, (‑G0NIUM), GONO‑; ARCHEGONIUM, EPIGONE. 14. Full‑grade form *gen‑ in: a. Persian zadan, to be born: MIRZA; b. Persian zata‑, born, in azad‑, free: AZEDARACH. 15. Zero‑grade form *gn‑ in Sanskrit ja‑ in krmi‑ja‑, "produced by worms" (see kwmi‑). [Pok. 1. gen‑ 373.]